I've finally dug up three public documents often referred to by analyst Andrey Illarionov. In his words, they reflect the Kremlin's actual policy regarding surrounding countries that used to be part of the Soviet Union or Russian Empire. These documents explain the meaning of the term "compatriots," describe the concept of the "Russian World," and outline the likely military action necessary to bring Ukraine under Russian control (operation "Clockwork Orange").
The links are to Google translations of the documents.
1. The Law on Compatriots
Note the very broad definition of "compatriot" (including descendants of those who lived in the Russian Empire or Soviet Union) and the types of actions that Russia can justify as constituting protection of compatriots' rights.
2. Operation "Clockwork Orange"
This was apparently published back in 2008. Look how closely events in Ukraine in the past 6-10 months mirror the text. The text outlines the scope of Kremlin interest in Ukraine, which includes Kiev if possible, though it might take a demonstrative A-bomb detonation in the stratosphere north of Kiev to force a capitulation.
3. The Boundaries of the Russian World
This recent text outlines the current vision of Russia's role in the world. I'm not sure this is the exact document cited by Illarionov, because it makes no direct mention of Belarus or northern Kazakhstan — territories that elsewhere are considered to belong to the "Russian World." You can read more about this on Wikipedia. There are now fairly clear indications (wish I had more sources to cite) that the Kremlin has plans to unite the Russian World into an actual geopolitical entity.